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A new study of the residue on two altars in the cultic shrine at Tel Arad has revealed the use of cannabis and frankincense in worship at the site.  Tel Arad was a fortress that guarded the southern border of the kingdom of Judah from the 9th century to the 6th century BC.  Within the fortress archaeologists discovered a small temple with two limestone altars at the entrance.  When researchers tested the resin on the altars in the 1960’s the tests were inconclusive.  The residue was recently reanalyzed independently at two different labs with similar results.  One altar had the remains of frankincense and animal fat; the other altar had residue from burnt cannabis and dung.  The study’s authors note this is the first time a hallucinogenic substance found in the Kingdom of Judah, and the earliest evidence of the use of frankincense in Judahite worship. 


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